Scharf, Peter. 2002. Rāmopākhyāna--the Story of Rāma in the Mahābhārata: An Independent-study Reader in Sanskrit. Richmond: RoutledgeCurzon.

Corrigenda 2009

I am grateful to Jim Funderburk, Stephen Rhodes, and Herman Tull for bringing errors to my attention. If you notice errors not in this list, please email me with "Ramopakhyana" in the subject line. Corrections here include all corrections to the text received in Eudora 16 Jan 2004 to 3 Nov. 2006 and in MacMail 30 Oct 2006 - 30 Mar 2009.


  1. p. 3, change "cluminating" to "culminating".
  2. In Intro sec. IIA (p. 29), Change "chapters 267-276" to "chapters 257-276."
  3. In Preface, Development, paragraph 2 change ‘I’ to ‘me’ in “compiled by George Cardona, Elliot Stern, and I”.
  4. Note for me: Add mention of the fact that I list the adjectival stem in the glossary and provide no indication of the feminine suffix to be added to derive the inflectional stem. Or add such an indication for each. Where adjectives have a feminine affix, list: dīptākṣa, -ī, with explanation in the grammatical introduction that the feminine suffix occurs after the comma?


  1. p. 78, 3.257.5, prose: Add sentence 6 (and renumber sentence 6 to 7): anṛtam stainyam śuciṃ puruṣam na saṃspṛśet .6.
  2. p. 78, 3.257.5, grammar notes: Add note: śuciṃ stainyamivānṛtam: Suplete the sentence as follows: "as an underserved theft (would not touch na saṃspṛśet) a pure man."
  3. p. 78, 3.257.5, English: Add a comma after "wife".
  4. p. 116, 3.259.6, text and Roman: Change O to o in lokapālaupamān.
  5. p. 121, 3.259.10, glossary, column 1: Change grīvāṇi to grīvāḥ since grīva is masculine
  6. p. 124, 3.259.13, grammar ūṣuḥ: Change "3sa prf" to "3pa prf"
  7. p. 125, 3.259.14, grammar dadṛśuḥ: Change "3sa prf" to "3pa prf"
  8. p. 128, 3.259.17, grammar notes: Add at beginning of notes: "The 3sa ipf form hārayat with preverbs abhi ava, as read in the critical edition, omits the initial augment in the imperfect. Augment omission is not uncommon in the MBh.; cf. vrajan (3pa ipf) in MBh. 1.55.20b te virā ekacakrāṃ vrajaṃs tadā.
  9. p. 130, 3.259.19, prose, sentence 1: Change असेवेते and अरक्षेते to असेवेताम् (3dm ipf) and अरक्षताम् (3da ipf).
  10. p. 131, 3.259.20, English: Change "ten-necked" to "ten-headed".
  11. p. 135, 3.259.23, glossary, column 1, sarva: Change "whole, entire" to "all, whole".
  12. p. 140, 3.259.26, prose, sentence 2: Change अकीर्तयत् to अकीर्तयस् [AnSan: अकीर्तयः].
  13. p. 147, 3.259.31, prose, sentence 8: Change बुध्धिर् to बुद्धिर्.
  14. p. 149, 3.259.32, Devanagari, line 2: Restore ś in laṅkāyāścyāvayāmāsa.
  15. p. 149, 3.259.32, grammar, line 3, 1st word: Change "f6s" to "f5s".
  16. p. 156, 3.259.38, text, Roman, analyzed sandhi, grammar notes: Change abhyaṣiñcat to abhyaṣiñcan, and in grammar change "3sa ipf" to "3pa ipf".
  17. p. 156, 3.259.38, grammar notes: Add after 'occurs' and before "according to..." the following: "even if the augment a intervenes between a preverb-final vowel conditioning retroflection and root-initial s".
  18. p. 156, 3.259.38, prose, sentence 3: Delete utterance-initial in समाअगच्छन्.
  19. p. 157, 3.259.39, grammar notes: Add "kāmarūpin: The śabdakalpadruma glosses the derivate kāmena svecchayā rūpaṃ dhāryatvena asty asya iniḥ. [It never occurs in MBh. just as is; always: kāmarūpadhara, kāmarūpabaladhara, etc. and with -in, -vat (matup)]
  20. p. 158, 3.259.40, grammar notes: Add: "ādadhat: the prap of a reduplicated root does not add penultimate n, by Pā. 7.1.78 nābhyastācchatuḥ.
  21. p. 161, 3.260.2, prose, sentence 4: add ".4." after सः०. grammar notes: after Read with verse 3, "The ellipsis in prose sentence 3 is continued in 260.3, prose sentence 2."
  22. p. 164, 3.260.4, prose, sentence 5: Change निगृहीतुम् to निग्रहीतुम्.
  23. p. 169, 3.260.8, grammar notes: Add just after "avatartum:" The infinitive omits the augment i from taritum in exception to Pā. 7.2.35 and its optional lengthening in tarītum by 7.2.38.
  24. p. 175, 3.260.13, column 1, under nāgāyutasamaprāṇa, in the compound gloss, change nāgāyutsamāḥ to nāgāyutasamāḥ.
  25. p. 179, 3.261.1, text, Roman: Change "S" to "C" in brahmañśrotum. (throughout: revised standard sandhi)
  26. p. 184, 3.261.4, glossary, column 2, pāraga: Change "(loc.)" to "(loc./gen.)".
  27. p. 190, 3.261.10, glossary, column 1, pāraga: Change "(loc.)" to "(loc./gen.)".
  28. p. 193, 3.261.13, grammar notes: Change pritim to prītim.
  29. p. 194, 3.261.13, grammar notes: Append "kurunandana: Although the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra are often called Kurus in contrast to the sons of Pāṇḍu, any descendent of kuru, who is the ancestor of both, is properly so termed. Likewise the term 'delighter of Kuru' is a suitable epithet for Yudhiṣṭhira.
  30. p. 196, 3.261.15, grammar saṃbhriyantām: Change "3sp ipv" to "3pp ipv".
  31. p. 196, 3.261.15, grammar me: Change "m/f/n6s" to "m/f/n4s". In English add "for me" after "collected".
  32. p. 221, 3.261.38, glossary, visarjita: Change "ppp" to "ppp c".
  33. p. 230, 3.261.47, prose, sentence 4: Change नावमंस्यत to नावामंस्यत < न अव अमंस्यत.
  34. p. 231, 3.261.48, analyzed sandhi, line 2, and in the grammar notes: Change ādāya to ādhāya.
  35. p. 233, 3.261.50, grammar notes: Add "dahyat: prap derived as from a class 4 root."
  36. p. 243, 3.262.4, grammar notes: Change " mixes two types of constuctions which occur with verbs of knowing in a single clause" to ": Two types of constructions occur with verbs of knowing." Change "prose sentence 3" to "prose sentence 4" and "prose sentence 4" to "prose sentence 3", and add, "Either the two are mixed, or the latter is used with ellipsis of tat within the iti clause and an added tat referring to the clause, "Know that, '(It is) done'".
  37. p. 265, 3.262.24, grammar notes: Add, "bhīru fvs of the substantive bhīrū 'timid (lady)' derived from bhīru + ū by extension of Pā. 4.1.66).
  38. p. 266, 3.262.25, text and Roman: Change uktvā to uktā.
  39. p. 267, 3.262.26, grammar notes: Append: "The second line mixes a condition with a relative clause construction. Literally translate, "would not occur" for "does not exist". bhavet appears in the optative because it is the apodosis of the presumed condition implied by the relative clause. Prose sentence 3 paraphrases the future less vivid condition implied; sentence 4 paraphrases the relative clause without the conditional tense."
  40. p. 267, 3.262.26, prose, insert after sentence 2 before sentence 3 (and renumber the latter to 5): yadi tvam matprāptikālam hṛdā prārthayet, na eṣaḥ kalaḥ bhavet.3. yam matprāptikālam prārthayase, na eṣaḥ bhaviṣyati.4.
  41. p. 293, 3.263.6, glossary and English: Change "slain" to "struck down".
  42. p. 302, 3.263.15, English: Change "the slain mountain-like vulture" to "the mountain-like vulture struck down."
  43. p. 307, 3.263.26, grammar notes: Change "grammar notes derive" to "glossary derives".
  44. p. 315, 3.263.26, grammar notes: Insert "viṣādam agamat: " before "Sanskrit often uses".
  45. p. 318, 3.263.29, glossary, kosalāgata: Change gata to āgata, and gam to ā gam.
  46. p. 321, 3.263.32, text, Roman, analyzed sandhi, prose sentence 3: Change chindhi to chinddhi.
  47. p. 324, 3.263.35, grammar notes: Insert "abhyāhanat: derived as from a class 1 root.
  48. p. 326, 3.263.37, grammar notes: After 'Which this me?', insert, ", and could be rendered, "What is this strange wonderful thing that appears to me?"
  49. p. 327, 3.263.38, prose, sentence 2: Change ब्र्?ह्मणस्य to ब्राह्मणस्य [corrected].
  50. p. 340, 3.264.6, grammar notes: Add "samāśvasa: derived as from a class 1 root.
  51. p. 344, 3.264.10, grammar notes: Add "preṣayām: The final a of a preverb and the initial e or o of a root is replaced by the latter sound alone by Pā. 6.1.94. Alternatively, the form is derivable from the root preṣ in cluded in the Pāṇinian root list (preṣṛ gatau MDhV 1.400).
  52. p. 350, 3.264.16, prose, sentence 2: Change सिग्रीवस्य to सुग्रीवस्य.
  53. p. 372, 3.264.37, analyzed sandhi and glossary, column 1: Change bhinnamarmābihhata to bhinnamarmābhihata.
  54. p. 375, 3.264.40, analyzed sandhi/grammar: add after pṛṣṭhe: mālyavataḥ m6s.
  55. p. 376, 3.264.41, text, Roman, analzyzed sandhi, glossary column 2, prose sentence 5: Change nandanaupame to nandanopame.
  56. p. 383, 3.264.45, grammar, line 1: change "f1s" to "f1p" under etāḥ and under anyāḥ.
  57. p. 383, 3.264.45, grammar, line 2: change "3pa pre" to "3pm pre".
  58. p. 383, 3.264.45, glossary column 1 main entry, and English: Delete 'is', i.e. Change "having hair is as thick" to "having hair as thick".
  59. p. 383, 3.264.45, glossary, column 1 dīptākṣa last line: Change 4.1.44 to 4.1.41.
  60. p. 400, 3.264.61, glossary, column 1, svapna: Change "sleep" to "sleep, dream".
  61. p. 410, 3.264.70, grammar notes: Add "rudhirārdrāṅga: The feminine suffix (ṅīṣ) occurs in accordance with the Kā. comment [363] aṅgagātrakaṇṭhebhya iti vaktavyam on Pā. 4.1.54.
  62. p. 417, 3.265.4, glossary, column 2 vasanta: Change "n" to "noun".
  63. p. 432, 3.265.18, grammar notes: Add note: abhivarṣatī: regularly abhivarṣantī; prap of classes 1, 4, and 10 obligatorily has penultimate n by Pā. 7.1.81 śapśyanor nityam.
  64. p. 439, 3.265.24, grammar notes: Add: "prārudat is conjugated as a class 6 root."
  65. p. 440, 3.265.25, glossary, column 2, snigdha: Add "unctuous, " before "affectionate".
  66. p. 442, 3.265.27, prose, sentence 3: Change samaiṣyat to samaiṣye.
  67. p. 443, 3.265.28, grammar notes: Change jartum to kartum.
  68. p. 444, 3.265.29, grammar notes: Add "anindyāṅga: The feminine suffix (ṅīṣ) occurs in accordance with the Kā. comment [363] aṅgagātrakaṇṭhebhya iti vaktavyam on Pā. 4.1.54 as in {ruDirArdrANga} in 264.70.
  69. p. 454, 3.266.9, English translation: "I think he does not understand the fulfillment of an agreement, surely because he despises me since I have provided him assistance."
  70. p, 455, 3.266.10, inflection, line 1: change "3sm prf" to "3sm pre".
  71. p. 459, 3.266.13, glossary: There's a column formatting error. Vocabulary for the third line appears in both columns below a horizontal line to be drawn at pūjā accross both columns. The top of column two continues vinītātman in the first column. Second column prī continues first column prīyamāna.
  72. p. 462, 3.266.15, grammar notes: Add note "Aha: According to Pā. 3.4.84 bruvaḥ pañcānāmādita āho bruvaḥ, 3rd person and second person sg. and du. active perfect verbal terminations occur in present time for this verb, and the root brū is replaced by āh; contemporary grammars account for the facts by explaining that there is a defective verb ah used in the perfect with present sense.
  73. p. 468, 3.266.21, glossary, column 2, udaya: the lexid should be 'noun' rather than 'm'.
  74. p. 470, 3.266.23, inflection, line 1: change the first item '3sa' to '3pa'.
  75. p. 633, 3.269.14, glossary, column 1, vi vyath: Delete vi and root sign, i.e. change to vyath.
  76. p. 640, 3.270.7, prose, sentence 2: Change नर्ययौ to निर्ययौ.

Additions to Abbreviations

  1. MDhV Shastri, Dwarikadas, ed. 1983. The Mādhavīyā Dhātuvṛitti [A treatise on Sanskrit roots based on the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini] by Sāyaṇācārya. 2nd. ed. Kamachha, Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

Two corrections to audio and reader flagged.


  1. p. 137, 3.259.24: Jim Funderburk hears no na in pāda a. I hear napāda both in the 1st and 4th pādas but no capāda in the fourth pāda. Sounds like vijetāsi instead of vijetā ca na.
  2. p. 189, 3.261.009 mahoraskam: the audio is misread as manoraskam.

Illegible Devanagari (but correct data)

  1. p. 217, 3.261.34, verse, pāda c: dBr

Devanagari transcription error?

  1. p. 307, 3.263.20, text: The anusvāra in kāṃ is positioned too far left.
  2. p. 400, 3.264.61, prose, sentence 3, 4: Delete virāma and use open y in विनङ्क्ष्यति.